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  • Calcium (Ca)
    Role: essential for sound bone growth and teeth. Required for proper function of heart, and of nervous and muscular systems. An important constituent of blood.
    Deficiency Symptoms may include: poor bone growth, poor teeth, arthritis, milk fever, depressed appetite, low milk production, mastitis.
  • Phosphorous (P)
    Role: essential for healthy animal growth, sound bone growth and teeth. Required in protein building, for the assimilation of carbohydrates and fats, and for enzyme activity. An important constituent of blood. Acts as a buffer in saliva and blood. Calcium and phosphorous constitute a major part of the mineral matter in tissues and some 90% of minerals.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: slow growth, bone problems, bone chewing, rickets, depressed appetite, ill-thrift, low milk production, fertility problems.
  • Magnesium (Mg)
    Role: essential for nerve and muscle activity, sound bone growth and maintenance, and for proper functioning of enzyme systems.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: tetanies, staggering, nervous behavior, uneven bone growth, arthritis, low milk production, mastitis.
  • Sodium (Na)
    Role: protects the body against excessive dehydration. Sodium, with potassium, is a cell regulating element and is involved in the animal’s metabolic function, including acid-base balance in blood and saliva. Aids in balancing excess potassium problems.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: salt craving, weight loss, ill-thrift, depressed appetite, low milk production.
  • Iron (Fe)
    Role: essential for health of red blood cells. Required for oxygen transport to body cells. Aids in cell development and in preventing anaemia.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: anaemia, depressed appetite, listlessness.
  • Manganese (Mn)
    Role: essential as component in enzyme systems and for central nervous system function. Required for bone growth, protein digestion and reproduction.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: bone abnormalities, weak joints, lameness, fertility problems.
  • Copper (Cu)
    Role: essential for optimum animal health and performance, and disease resistance. Required for irom metabolism and is a key component in the activation of enzyme systems.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: swayback, poor coat colour, steely wool, scouring, anaemia, ill-thrift, fertility problems, low growth rates, susceptibility to foot problems, bone problems, depressed immune systems.
  • Zinc (Zn)
    Role: essential for healthy reproductive and immune systems, healthy skin and hair coat. Aids in promotion of normal growth. Essential component of many enzyme systems.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: skin problems, rough hair coat, fertility problems, low disease resistance, susceptibility to foot problems, depressed appetite, poor growth.
  • Iodine (I)
    Role: essential for health of thyroid gland which controls health of other body glands. Important in regulating metabolism and immune response. Promotes hair growth and general thrift.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: enlarged thyroid gland, ill-thrift, poor hair coat, fertility problems, low milk production, mastitis, increased foot rot, low lamb survival, weakened immune response.
  • Cobalt (Co)
    Role: essential for production of vitamin B12 in the rumen. Required for healthy bone development, heathy blood formation, protein and energy metabolism.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: depressed appetite, anaemia, poor bone growth, wasting, ill-thrift, rough hair coat, fertility problems.
  • Selenium (Se)
    Role: important for fertility, healthy muscles, disease resistance. Functions in association with vitamin E.
    Deficiency symptoms may include: white muscle disease, muscular stiffness and wasting, slow growth, weakened immune system, ill-thrift, fertility problems, low lamb survival.
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